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This phenomenon appears to be developmental and is similar to the stages a child goes through in acquiring the positive member of a pair of opposites (e hair loss cure erectile order 0.5mg dutasteride with mastercard. For example hair loss 1 year postpartum order dutasteride with visa, in the following sentences the target words are in brackets: People are work and earn efficient [sufficient] money; They are reasonable [responsible] for the loss of our land. The traditional view of the role of age in second-language acquisition has been that acquiring an L2 is more difficult for an older. This view derives largely from the Critical Period Hypothesis, developed by the neurobiologist Eric Lenneberg. However, the Critical Period Hypothesis in general and its implications for second-language acquisition in particular are not universally agreed upon by researchers. For example, Hatch (1983) reviews findings which suggest that adult L2 learners actually achieve higher levels of proficiency than younger learners, at least initially, and learn more efficiently than Second-Language Acquisition 235 that younger learners. It is generally agreed, however, phonology is the one domain where adult learners lag behind younger learners, in that a native-like accent is difficult to acquire if L2 acquisition begins beyond the age of puberty. The role of age variables that may been exposure lias is a complex issue because age interacts with other nonlinguistic also affect second-language acquisition. Thus, if two learn- an L2 at different ages, the learner who started at an earlier age display superior proficiency simply because of having studied the L2 for a longer period of time, not necessarily because of having begun at an earlier age. On the other hand, older learners bring to the acquisition process more mature cognitive skills in analysis and problem-solving skills which, though not strictly linguistic, may be profitably applied to the task of language acAlso, - quisition. Field independence is a relatively analytical style in which the kamer imposes stnicture on individual parts, distinguishing the inelevant from the essential. Field dependence is a relatively global or holistic style in which the learner does not independence has been found to correlate somewhat with success in second-language acquisition (although this may reflect the fact that most teaching techniques emphasize analysis). Field found to correlate with success in second-language acquisition include extroversion and a willingness to take risks. Extroversion has been found to be more of an advantage in naturalistic settings than in formal learning settings. We began with four observations about the However, we had no ready explanation for these phenomena. Therefore, we constructed a (partial) theory of second-language 236 Chapter 9 makes use of such concepts as interlanguage, language transfer (both positive and negative), language universals, markedness, and developmental processes. This theory ond-language acquisition can be subdivided into the acquisition of phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Moreover, we have looked briefly at some of the non-linguistic influences on second-language acquisition, including age, cognitive style, personality, and other social-psychological forces such as motivation and atti- tude. However, you have now been exposed to some of the basic ideas in the field; if you want to learn more about the subject, see the readings at the end of this chapter. Following the readings are practice problems and answers to test your understanding of the chapter. Interlanguage You are now the most accessible of these, reviews basic concepts in linguistics their applicability to prepared to read the Hatch, Beebe, and McLaughlin works. Beebe bilingual education is a collection of essays by researchers in five areas room research, and -psycholinguistics, -each sociolinguistics, neurolinguistics, class- offering a different perspective on issues in second-language acquisition. McLaughlin also examines different theoretical perspectives on second-language acquisition, for example interlanguage theory and universal grammar theory. The other works are more advanced and would therefore be more accessible to readers with additional coursework in syntax or phonology. Gass and Schachter is a collection of studies on second-language acquisition, most of them experimental, by researchers in syntax, semantics, and phonology. Ioup and Weinberger is a collection of essays on phonology and second-language acquisition, many of them reprinted from journals. Consider the following forms produced by non-native speakers acquiring English us an Classify the errors by domain of linguistics. In each case, how eat the speaker signals temporal information in the absence of relevant verb mor- phologv. All French speaker acquiring English as an L2 uses the form Look that plane for Look at the French verb that corresponds to look at is regarder. How- ever, not to languages allow relativization of the object of a preposition (e.

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It would be as much as their lives were worth if one of the creatures were injured through their neglect hair loss kidney disease buy 0.5mg dutasteride amex. I believe that the keeping of a herd of beasts hair loss x2 discount 0.5 mg dutasteride visa, with the sole motive of using them as a reserve for food, or as a means of barter, is a late idea in the history of civilisation. It has now become established among the pastoral races of South Africa, owing to the traffickings of the cattle-traders, but it was by no means prevalent in Damara-Land when I travelled there in 1852. I then was surprised to observe the considerations that induced the chiefs to take pleasure in their vast herds of cattle. They were as the deer of an English squire, or as the stud of a man who has many more horses than he can ride. An ox was almost a sacred beast in Damara-Land, not to be killed except on momentous occasions, and then as a sort of sacrificial feast, in which all bystanders shared. I was considerably embarrassed by finding that I had the greatest trouble in buying oxen for my own use, with the ordinary articles of barter. One of the ways in which the value of tamed beasts would be soon appreciated would be that of giving milk to children. I have had the milk of my goats, when encamping for the night in African travels, drained dry by small black children, who had not the strength to do more than crawl about, but nevertheless came to some secret understanding with the goats and fed themselves. The records of many nations have legends like that of Romulus and Remus, who are stated to have been suckled by wild beasts. This necessity limits very narrowly the number of species which might otherwise have been domesticated. The North American turkey, reared from the eggs of the wild bird, is stated to be unknown in the third generation, in captivity. Our turkey comes from Mexico, and was abundantly domesticated by the ancient Mexicans. The Indians of the Upper Amazon took turtle and placed them in lagoons for use in seasons of scarcity. When animals reared in the house are suffered to run about in the companionship of others like themselves, they naturally revert to much of their original wildness. It is therefore essential to domestication that they should possess some quality by which large numbers of them may be controlled by a few herdsmen. The herdsman of a vast troop of oxen grazing in a forest, so long as he is able to see one of them, knows pretty surely that they are all within reach. When animals are not gregarious, they are to the herdsman like a falling necklace of beads whose string is broken, or as a handful of water escaping between the fingers. It is retained by its extraordinary adhesion to the comforts of the house in which it is reared. An animal may be perfectly fitted to be a domestic animal, and be peculiarly easy to tend in a general way, and yet the circumstances in which the savages are living may make it too troublesome for them to maintain a breed. He says "In the chase the hunters are assisted by dogs, which they take when young and domesticate; but they take little pains to train them to any particular mode of hunting. After finding a litter of young, the natives generally carry away one or two to rear; in this case, it often occurs that the mother will trace and attack them; and, being large and very strong, she is rather formidable. At some periods, food is so scanty as to compel the dog to leave his master and provide for himself; but in a few days he generally returns. The gregariousness of all our domestic species is, I think, the primary reason why some of them are extinct in a wild state. The wild herds would intermingle with the tame ones, some would become absorbed, the others would be killed by hunters, who used the tame cattle as a shelter to approach the wild. Besides this, comfort-loving animals would be less suited to fight the battle of life with the rest of the brute creation; and it is therefore to be expected that those varieties which are best fitted for domestication, would be the soonest extinguished in a wild state. For instance, we could hardly fancy the camel to endure in a land where there were large wild beasts. The tamest cattle-those that seldom ran away, that kept the flock together and led them homewards-would be preserved alive longer than any of the others.

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By some estimates hair loss cure israel purchase dutasteride american express, as many as 4 billion people hair loss x2 discount dutasteride 0.5mg mastercard, about two-thirds of the global population, live under conditions of severe water scarcity for at least one month of the year. The 2006 Human Development Report argues forcefully that limits on physical supply are not the central problem but rather that "the roots of the crisis in water can be traced to poverty, inequality and unequal power relationships, as well as flawed water management policies that exacerbate scarcity. Every country has a national water footprint, the amount of water produced or consumed per capita. The footprint includes virtual water, which is the water used in the production of such goods as food or industrial products. Across countries, agriculture constitutes the single greatest component (92 percent) of the water consumption footprint, with cereals the largest subcomponent (27 percent), followed by meat (22 percent) and milk products (7 percent). Indeed, some of them have national water footprints of consumption on par, or exceeding, those in developed countries. Consider access to safe drinking water and sanitation, where significant inequalities persist between and within countries. Globally, over the past two decades the gaps have narrowed, falling from 47 percentage points to 32 for safely managed water services and from 14 percentage points to 5 for safely managed sanitation services. In some, basic water and sanitation coverage for the wealthiest quintile is at least twice that for the poorest quintile (figure 5. For water, wealth inequalities generally exceed urban-rural ones within the same country. While water and sanitation coverage has generally improved over the past two decades across most, but not all, countries, inequalities by wealth have shown no such general trend. Increasingly severe water-related crises around the world are driving what some have argued is a fundamental transition in freshwater resources and their management. Approaches that focus singularly on meeting water demand are giving way to more multifaceted ones that recognize various limits on supply, broader ecological and social values of water, and the costs and efficiency of human use. Nexus approaches are emerging that identify and respond to the way in which water is linked to other resources, such as energy, food and forests. Wealth quintile Poorest quintile Richest quintile Urban 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 Environmental inequalities are largely a choice, made by those with the power to choose. Remedying them is also a choice Economic production systems, demographic trends and climate change are all playing big parts in this shift. Over the past two decades, for example, the spread of sophisticated precision irrigation technology has improved efficiency of water use in agriculture. Modern technologies are also transforming wastewater treatment and reuse, as well as the economic viability of seawater desalination. Smart water meters and improved water pricing policies can both improve efficiency. They reflect the way economic and political power-and the intersection of the two-is distributed and wielded, both across countries and within them. Often, these environmental inequalities and injustices are the legacy of entrenched gradients in power going back decades; for climate change, centuries. Countries and communities with greater power have, consciously or not, shifted some of the environmental consequences of their consumption onto poor and vulnerable people, onto marginalized groups, onto future generations. It has underpinned development trajectories that are directly linked to the climate crisis. Technology, in the form of renewables and energy efficiency, offers a glimpse that the future may break from the past-if the opportunity can be seized quickly enough and broadly shared. The way people grapple with these and other technologies so that they encourage, rather than threaten, sustainable and inclusive human development is the subject of the following chapter on technology. The uptake and broad diffusion of climate-protecting technologies old and new will be critical in charting new development paths for all countries. But much more on the policy front needs to be done urgently, with developed and developing countries working together, to avoid dangerous climate tipping points and to ensure that poor and vulnerable people are not left behind. Chapter 7, which takes a panoramic look at policy options across the Report, discusses some potential policies that help address climate change and inequality together in the hope that they help countries chart their paths for more sustainable, more inclusive human development. Historical development paths have exacted environmental and social tolls that are too great. They must change, and there are encouraging signs that they are Chapter 5 Climate change and inequalities in the Anthropocene 193 Spotlight 5. The study found significant spatial heterogeneity in agricultural yields and all-cause mortality.

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In the past this phenomenon was thought to be a complication of gardenvariety hemangiomas hair loss vinegar nutritive rinse cleanser generic 0.5mg dutasteride free shipping, but recent evidence indicates an association with rare vascular tumors such as kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma hair loss meme buy dutasteride without a prescription. A lymphangioma, also known as a lymphatic malformation, is a vascular malformation composed of lymphatic tissue. A cystic hygroma is one type of lymphatic malformation that is composed of larger cystic spaces, also called a macrocystic lymphatic malformation. It usually is apparent in the immediate newborn period and is located on the head and neck. Some patients with cystic hygroma have underlying genetic abnormalities such as Turner syndrome. Sacral pits (particularly with lateral deviation of the gluteal cleft, if they are large, or more than 2. A port-wine stain is a malformation composed of small capillary and venular-size vessels. Pulsed dye laser therapy is the preferred method of treatment and may lead to significant lightening in many patients. These lesions differ from the "stork bite" and "angel kiss" nevus simplex, which do not progress and do not need to be treated. In infancy, however, many of these findings may not be present or may be difficult to discern. Similarly, a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan in infancy may not show the characteristic calcification, cerebral atrophy, or abnormalities of the cortex and white matter. Neonates with a port-wine stain in that distribution should have an urgent eye examination to assess for possible glaucoma. Both diseases are autosomal dominant, but spontaneous mutations account for approximately half of cases. The incidence of neurofibromatosis type 1 is 1 in 2500; the mutated gene product is neurofibromin, a protein involved in tumor suppression. Neurofibromatosis type 2 has a reported incidence of 1 in 33,000; the involved gene product is merlin, which mediates cytoskeleton and extracellular movement. Without a positive family history, however, it can be difficult to diagnose neurofibromatosis in the first months of life. Other features that are associated with neurofibromatosis in older children include learning disability, macrocephaly, short stature, scoliosis, juvenile xanthogranulomas, angiomas, mental retardation, impaired coordination, seizures, cerebral tumors. Hypopigmented macules, known as ash leaf spots, are the most common skin findings of tuberous sclerosis in infants. Adenoma sebaceum (facial angiofibromas) generally appear at 3 years of age and older; periungual or gum fibromas appear in early adulthood. Another manifestation of tuberous sclerosis during the neonatal period that is of concern is a rhabdomyoma within the heart. Infants diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis should have a cardiac echocardiography examination performed. What is peculiar about the genetic abnormalities associated with the tuberous sclerosis phenotype Two distinct chromosomal complexes on two different chromosomes are implicated as areas of mutation that result in tuberous sclerosis. Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 is caused by mutations in the tuberin gene on chromosome 16 at 16p13.

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