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The statistics only present an over-all picture of incidence of crime and make it possible to compare the crime rate at regional treatment bladder infection purchase neurontin online pills, national and international level treatment for pneumonia generic 300 mg neurontin free shipping. Speaking about the importance of periodical statistical records of prisons and prisoners Bentham observed: the ordering of these returns is a measure of excellent use in furnishing data for the legislature to work upon. They will form together a kind of political barometer by which the effect of every legislative operation relative to the subject may be indicated and made palatable. It is not till lately the legislators have thought of providing themselves with necessary documents. Thus, it would be seen that crime statistics provide a useful guideline for the legislators and criminal law administrators to fight against criminality and find effective anti-dote of crimes. Pointing out the significance of statistical data on crime and criminals, Edwin Sutherland observed that, these statistics are sometimes usefully utilized in the formulation of social policies and theories of criminality. The social information contained in them forms the basis of extensive research in the field of criminology. In the absence of statistical record of crime it would become virtually impossible to form any valid opinion about the crime picture in a given place. Sources of Crime Statistics: Available statistics of crime may broadly be classified into two major categories, viz. Serious crimes generally cause greater alarm in the society and huge revenue loss to the State such as tax evasion, bank frauds, scams etc. The minor offences, on the other hand, are less alarming and are generally viewed mildly by the society. Police statistics are primarily concerned with the number of crimes reported, the number of persons apprehended and the number of offences cleared or accounted for by the arrests made. The judicial or Court statistics are concerned with the number of offences prosecuted the number convicted and the method of procedure followed in determining guilt, the number not convicted and the stage at which cases were dropped. These statistics also account for the number of convictions and the type of sentences imposed upon guilty persons. Penal statistics comprise the details of different types of custodial measures, the characteristics of inmates, time spent in custody, number of escapes and offence-wise number of recidivists. It may be stated that equally important is the data of post-correctional criminal behaviour but it is practically not feasible to follow up the post-release conduct of the convicted offenders. But the Government should at lest make efforts to collect the statistical data concerning repletion of crimes which may help the administration in suitably dealing with the habitual 7. Reasons for Unreliability of Crime Statistics: the magnitude of the problem of various forms of crime in a particular country can be ascertained after an analysis of the criminal statistics. It is, therefore, not possible to detect all criminal acts committed by people in a country. It is for this reason that it is generally 131 believed that statistics of crime and criminal are most deceptive of all the statistics and hardly present a true picture of crime position. Some of the reasons generally attributed to unreliability of crime statistics are as follows: 1. The concept of crime being dynamic, it is difficult to determine the quantum of crime with accuracy. Quite a large number of crimes committed remain undetected, there are others which are detected but not reported and many more are reported but not recorded. The offence may be considered trivial; the police-post might be too far away; one sincerely wants that the culprit should be punished but he may apprehend harassment from him or he may not be wiling to go through the cumbersome process of criminal trial or he or she may feel embarrassed, as in case of sex offences. The victim may also not be interested in reporting crime because he may not have confidence in the criminal justice system. At times, there is a deliberate non-registration of crimes because lesser number of crimes projects a better image of police performance. Quite a large number of crimes are lost between arrest and prosecution and many more are lost between prosecution and conviction. Explaining this point further, Leon Radzinowicz observed that crimes fully brought out into the open and punished, represent not more than fifteen per cent of the great mass actually committed. The crime statistics at different places do not present a true picture of volume of crimes because of the socio-economic differences and variations in the criminal law.

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The Paris convention in 1971 defined the terminology used in reporting karyotypes treatment hyperthyroidism cheap 400mg neurontin. The centromere is designated "cen" and the telomere (terminal structure of the chromosome) as "ter" medications requiring prior authorization buy discount neurontin 300mg on line. The short arm of each chromosome is designated "p" (petit) and the long arm "q" (queue). Each arm is subdivided into a number of bands and sub-bands depending on the resolution of the banding pattern achieved. Deletions too small to be detected by microscopy may be amenable to diagnosis by molecular in situ hybridisation techniques. Karyotypes are reported in a standard format giving the total number of chromosomes first, followed by the sex chromosome constitution. All cell lines are described in mosaic abnormalities, indicating the frequency of each. Additional or missing chromosomes are indicated by or for whole chromosomes, with an indication of the type of abnormality if there is a ring or marker chromosome. Structural rearrangements are described by in dicating the p or q arm and the band position of the break points. Unbalanced translocations cause spontaneous abortions or syndromes of multiple 14 physical and mental handicaps 13 Figure 4. This can be used to identify the chromosomal origin of structural rearrangements that cannot be defined by conventional cytogenetic techniques. Hybridisation reveals fluorescent spots on each chromatid of the relative chromosome. Another application of this technique is in the study of interphase nuclei, which permits the study of non-dividing cells. Thus, rapid results can be obtained for the diagnosis or exclusion of Down syndrome in uncultured amniotic fluid samples using chromosome 21 specific probes. Incidence of chromosomal abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities are particularly common in spontaneous abortions. At least 20% of all conceptions are estimated to be lost spontaneously, and about half of these are associated with a chromosomal abnormality, mainly autosomal trisomy. Cytogenetic studies of gametes have shown that 10% of spermatozoa and 25% of mature oocytes are chromosomally abnormal. The extra haploid set is usually due to fertilisation of a single egg by two separate sperm. Very few triploid pregnancies continue to term and postnatal survival is not possible unless there is mosaicism with a normal cell line present as well. All autosomal monosomies and most autosomal trisomies are also lethal in early embryonic life. Trisomy 16, for example, is frequently detected in spontaneous first trimester abortuses, but never found in liveborn infants. The incidence of unbalanced abnormalities affecting autosomes and sex chromosomes is about the same. Aneuploidy affecting the sex chromosomes is fairly frequent and the effect much less severe than in autosomal abnormalities. Unbalanced autosomal abnormalities cause disorders with multiple congenital malformations, almost invariably associated with mental retardation. Children with more than one physical abnormality and developmental delay or learning disability should therefore undergo chromosomal analysis as part of their investigation. Chromosomal disorders are incurable but most can be reliably detected by prenatal diagnostic techniques.

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With father-daughter sexual abuse medicine zetia trusted neurontin 800mg, this often involves addressing marital issues within marital therapy medications lisinopril purchase neurontin 300mg otc. The central concern is to help the couples develop communication and problem-solving skills, and facilitate them in using these skills to address the way in which they address their mutual needs for intimacy and power sharing within the marriage. Long-term membership of a self-help support group may be a useful way for abusers to avoid relapse. If this option is unavailable, booster sessions offered at widely spaced intervals are an alternative for managing the long-term difficulties associated with sexual offending. Of the 120 cases, 61 per cent were tried, and of this group only two-thirds (48 cases) served a prison sentence, which in the majority of cases was between one and five years. Adolescent abusers While there are many similarities in the treatment of juvenile and adult perpetrators, there are a sufficient number of differences to warrant the separate consideration of their assessment and treatment (Barbaree et al. Fifty per cent of adult offenders commit their first acts of sexual abuse in adolescence. The majority of their victims are children, who may reside either inside or outside the family, and the majority of young offenders have been abused either sexually, physically or emotionally as children. The framework for assessing children with conduct disorders described in Chapter 10 may also be used. A primary aim of treatment should be to protect the victim, and so intrafamilial perpetrators should be placed outside the home, and extrafamilial perpetrators should be denied access to the victims until satisfactory progress in treatment has been made. Within treatment, it is the responsibility of the treatment team to notify the justice system if there is a change in the status of the risk the perpetrator poses to the community. Thus if the perpetrator discloses other episodes of abuse that suggest he poses a more serious risk than was originally suspected, or if he does not comply with treatment, the justice department should be notified. Work with the school may address attainment problems, supervision so that abusive episodes do not occur in school, and prevention of deviant peer-group membership. The growing literature on juvenile sex offenders suggests that ideally treatment programmes should include the following components (Barbaree et al. Confronting denial and building empathy In the first stage of treatment, the central tasks are the confrontation of denial and minimisation and the fostering of empathy in the perpetrator for the victim. Denial and minimisation typify perpetrators of child sexual abuse, and may be distinguished by degree. Perpetrators may deny that any interaction occurred; the sexual nature of the act; or the fact that the act was one of abuse, by insisting that the sexual interaction was non-coercive. Perpetrators may attempt to minimise their responsibility for the action; the extent of sexual abuse; or the impact of the abuse. In denying responsibility, perpetrators may blame the victim for initiating the sexual interaction by being provocative. Alternatively they may claim they were not responsible for their actions because of external stresses (such as lack of sexual outlets) or internal factors (such as intoxication). With respect to the extent of the abuse, perpetrators may minimise the frequency of the abuse, the number of victims, the amount of violence or coercion used, or the intrusiveness of the sexual acts. Finally perpetrators may minimise the impact of the abuse on the victim or highlight its educational features. Becker and Kaplan (1993) help young perpetrators identify their denial process through role playing abusive episodes in group treatment while prompting group members to verbalise their cognitive distortions. They also ask youngsters to write down the justifications that they used for their abusive actions. Writing an apology letter is an important part of breaking down the denial process and learning empathy skills. These include the situational triggers, the deviant fantasies and use of pornography, the behavioural routines, the negative and positive feelings, the distorted cognitions, and the decision-making processes that underpin abuse. Coaching in relapse-prevention skills When a clear understanding of the cycle of abuse has been achieved, treatment focuses on coaching perpetrators to develop strategies for identifying and avoiding high-risk situations that precipitated episodes of abuse (Gray and Pithers, 1993). Group exercises where perpetrators list external situational factors and internal thoughts and feelings that act as triggers may be used. Where such situations cannot be avoided, strategies for coping with these situations may be explored through group brainstorming or coaching in specific skills, such as managing negative mood states including depression or anger; self-confrontation of cognitive distortions which involve denial or minimisation; and taking control of their decision-making processes that may lead to abuse. Becker and Kaplan (1993) use covert sensitisation, in which young perpetrators imagine negative consequences following on from a trigger situation. For example, perpetrators imagine situations where they are looking at a potential victim playing alone in a secluded place and approach the child with the intention of abusing, and follow this by imagining themselves in jail. These risk-consequence scenarios are put on audio tape and perpetrators are required to listen to them repeatedly as homework, as well as during treatment sessions.

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Treatment Treatment in this instance began with family work involving the grandparents medicine woman strain order 800mg neurontin with visa, the mother and on a couple of occasions the father to reduce the amount of illness- and anxiety-focused conversation to which Sandra was exposed and to challenge the beliefs that psychological problems were unresponsive to psychological treatments medicine you can give dogs purchase neurontin overnight. This was followed with in vivo systematic desensitisation coupled with a brief trial of Anafranil, but Sandra could not tolerate the side effects, so the medication was discontinued. While Sandra made a good recovery, she suffered periodic relapses and re-referred herself for a number of further episodes of treatment over the following two years. Theories of anxiety may be classified as those which focus predominantly on biological variables and those that emphasise the role of psychological and psychosocial factors. A summary of the main theories of anxiety and the treatment approaches associated with them are presented in Table 12. There is an ethological implication here that sensitivity to particular classes of stimuli at particular developmental stages has an adaptive function, and this has evolved to protect the survival of the species (deSilva et al. The genetic hypothesis also entails the view that a dysfunctional biological factor which underpins the process of detecting danger is genetically transmitted in families where anxiety disorders occur. In support of the genetic hypothesis there is a substantial body of evidence which shows that there is a high rate of anxiety disorders in the first-degree relatives of people with such conditions (Klein, 1994), However, evidence from more convincing adoptive studies is sparse. There is also the evidence mentioned earlier that vulnerability to developing animal phobias and separation anxiety is highest during childhood, whereas social phobias, generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder with agoraphobia more commonly emerge in adolescence (Klein, 1994). Implicit in the genetic hypothesis is the view that pharmacological or psychological interventions should aim to help the person cope with a chronic, life-long disorder. Research efforts should focus on identifying the precise biological factor associated with deficits in threat perception that is genetically transmitted and the mechanisms of transmission. The parents awoke and brought the three children into their room as quietly as possible. However, the burglars panicked when they heard this and ran up the stairs to the bedroom shouting violent threats. After an unsuccessful attempt to break down the bedroom door, the burglars left the house. When it was clear that the burglars had left, Maureen and the rest of the family went downstairs and saw that the ground floor of the house had been ransacked. During assessment Maureen said that she became anxious each evening as bed time approached. She could only return to sleep if her parents slept in her bed or she slept in theirs. During the day she had flashes of images of dark figures chasing her and also sudden pangs of fear. She found it hard to concentrate on her school work or to join in games with her friends. She tried to deal with the flashes and pangs by putting them out of her mind or talking to her parents about them. The family vacillated between reassuring Maureen that everything was all right now and urging her to forget the incident on the one hand and allowing her to ventilate her fears and ruminations on the other. Occasionally the parents, Lucy and Max, argued about the best approach to managing the situation. Treatment Treatment in this case involved family work which focused on helping the parents and two older brothers support Maureen while exposed to ongoing, detailed, vivid conversation about the burglary. She was also invited to record all her vivid, trauma-related dreams, make pictures of them, and bring the pictures to the family sessions. To help Maureen develop a sense of mastery, in the family sessions, family members retold the dream stories but altered the endings so that Maureen vanquished the dark figures who chased her. A gradual reduction in nightmares, day-time intrusive images and emotions, and avoidance behaviour occurred over a period of 6 months. This binding process causes inhibition, a reduction in arousal, and a decrease in experienced anxiety. While there is some evidence for the anxiety-reducing effects of benzodiazepines with adults, these effects are usually lost as soon as medication ceases. With children, few controlled trials of benzodiazepines have been conducted and in those that have been conducted the drug led to only marginally better relief than the placebo (Taylor, 1994b; Bernstein, 1994; Gadow, 1992). The adrenergic-noradrenergic hypothesis this formulation has been developed specifically to explain the occurrence of panic attacks. Panic attacks are thought to be caused by a dysregulation of adrenergic and noradrenergic systems of the autonomic nervous system, particularly in the locus coeruleus.

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