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Professor, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine
A few years ago the newspapers were full of the Oreo pithecus of Monte Bamboli in Tuscany diabetes term definition purchase 25 mg precose visa, going so far as to dub him "the man aged two million years diabetes in dogs blood test order precose 50 mg without a prescription. Freedom of the hand almost necessarily implies a technical activity different from that of apes, and a hand that is free during locomotion, together with a shon face and the absence of fangs, commands the use of artificial organs, that is, of imple ments. Erect posture, short face, free hand during locomotion, and possession of movable implements-those are truly the fundamental criteria of humanity. The list includes none of the characteristics peculiar to monkeys and makes the midway form of human, so dear to pre-1950 theoreticians, completely unthinkable. Of course it is difficult to asSign preeminence to any particular characteristic, since in the development of species everything is interlinked, but I believe that there can be no doubt that to some extent cerebral development is a secondary criterion. Once humanity has been achieved, the brain plays a decisive role in the development of human societies. In terms of strict evolution it is undoubtedly a correlative of erect posture and not, as was thought for a long time, primordial. The situation of the human, in the broadest sense, thus appears to be condi tioned by erect posture. The phenomenon would seem incomprehensible were it not one of the solutions to a biological problem as old as the vertebrates themselves, that of the relationship between the face as bearer of the organs of nourishment and the forelimb as an organ not only of locomotion but also of prehension. Back bone, face, and hand (even in the form of a fin) were indissolubly linked from the very beginning. The situation created by erect human posture certainly represents a stage along the road that leads from the fish to Homo sa piens, but it in no way implies that the monkey was a staging post along that road. It is conceivable that monkeys and humans had a common source, but as soon as erect posture was established there was no more monkey in humans and, consequently, no half-human. The conditions created by erect human posture had consequences in terms of neuropsychological development; this meant that the development of the human brain was something 20 Technics and Language other than just an increase in volume. In the development of the brain the relation ship between face and hand remained as close as ever: Tools for the hand, language for the face, are twin poles of the same apparatus. Homo sa piens represents the last known stage of hominid evolution and also the first in which the constraints of zoological evolution had been overcome and left immeasurably far behind. The new conditions for development offered to tools and language form the framework of chapters 4 through 6, which complete the first part of this work. The second part is devoted to the development of the body social, which forms the prolongation of the anatomical body. The gradual substitution of social memory for the biological instinctual apparatus is discussed in chapter 7, its effects upon the evolution of technics in chapter 8, and its consequences for the evolution of language transmission in chapter 9. The third part, which deals with values and rhythms, is an essay in aesthetic paleontology and ethnology. In it I have attempted to gather together the elements necessary for a study of certain facts that normally escape systematic investigation. The sets of values that give every human group a personality of its own at each moment of its history are discussed in chapter 10. A classification of forms of aes thetic expression must necessarily be arbitrary, since it is in the very nature of art to touch upon many spheres at once. Nevertheless, it seems possible to distinguish between certain progressively more organized stages. Accordingly chapters 11 and 12 are devoted in turn to physiological aesthetics (much of this forming part of ani mal behavior) and to functional aesthetics, which relate principally to manual action in technical activities. Chapter 12 tackles the subject of the humanization of social behaVior, one of the problems that, together with that of instinct, have sustained the comparative study of animal and human societies. The subject is considered in turn from the point of view of humanization of time and space and from that of the sym bolic organization of the body social. Lastly, art-a human activity whose paleon tology is supported by extensive evidence-forms the subject of chapter 14. The final chapter is taken up, by way of conclusion, with the consideration of the human adventure.
Many fish consumers ingest intermittent doses of varying sizes and may consume fish over a short period of time diabetes mellitus zahnextraktion purchase precose 50 mg with visa. The potentially large diabetes insipidus blood sugar order precose 50mg overnight delivery, intermittent dose (bolus dose) has not been evaluated in most toxicity studies. Chronic exposure studies commonly use daily dosing and acute studies may use one or a few very large doses over a very short time period. Short-term dosing is frequently used in developmental toxicity studies (discussed in Section 2. The methods used to calculate fish consumption limits allow the daily RfD to be aggregated over a period of time. Thus the consumption averaged over 1 month corresponds to an average daily dose indicated by the RfD. However, the actual dose that may be consumed in 1 day can be approximately 30 times (in the case of a 30-day advisory) the daily RfD. A bolus dose may not be a problem for many individuals; however, it is a concern for those who are particularly susceptible to toxicants. For example, a relatively large single dose may be problematic for those with decreased ability to detoxify chemicals. Potential adverse effects in some groups are noted for many of the target analytes in Section 5. For example, organochlorines may interact with some commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals; consequently, individuals using specific drugs may find the efficacy altered by large doses of contaminants that interact with their drug-metabolizing systems. Infants have an immature immune system and may be less able to detoxify certain chemicals. Children have rapidly developing organ systems that may be more susceptible to disruption. These differences can alter responses to pesticides, especially during windows of vulnerability, leading to permanent alteration of the function of organ systems. A comprehensive dose-response evaluation requires an extensive review of both the primary literature, including journal articles and proceedings, and the secondary literature, such as books, government documents, and summary articles. It is typically very time consuming and requires data evaluation by toxicologists, epidemiologists, and other health professionals. Because risk values are available for the target analytes, it is not recommended that readers undertake further detailed dose-response evaluations for these chemicals. In addition, chemicals that are not included in the target analyte list may require analysis. It is strongly suggested that an evaluation begin with a review of current government documents on a chemical. This may save readers hundreds of hours of research by providing data and risk values. These guidelines have not been finalized yet but would supersede the existing cancer guidelines (U. The following discussion presents information from the existing guidelines that has not changed in the proposed guidelines and highlights information that has changed. Cancer risk is assumed to be proportional to cumulative exposure and, at low exposure levels, may be very small or even zero. When risks in air and water are provided, these are referred to as unit risks because they are expressed as risk per one unit of concentration of the contaminant in air or water. The cancer slope factor is derived from dose-response data obtained in an epidemiological study or a chronic animal bioassay. Because relatively high doses are used in most human epidemiological studies and animal toxicity studies, the data are usually extrapolated to the low doses expected to be encountered by the general population. The dose-response data from one or more studies are fit to standard cancer risk extrapolation models, which usually incorporate an upperbound estimate of risk (often the 95 percent upper bound). Cancer potency is estimated as the 95 percent upper confidence limit of the slope of the dose-response curve in the low-dose region. This method provides an upper estimate of risk; the actual risk may be significantly lower and may be as low as zero. There are four major steps in calculating cancer potencies: Identify the most appropriate dose-response data Modify dose data for interspecies differences Develop an equation describing the dose-response relationship Calculate an upper confidence bound on the data.
Decisionmakers should be aware of the information available and the type of information that will enable them to identify those at greatest risk blood glucose 130 purchase precose 25 mg. If resources are limited and only one population subgroup is to be evaluated diabetes in toddlers order precose paypal, evaluating the most highly exposed subgroups rather than the "average" portion of a population may be advisable. These groups are probably at the greatest health risk (if there is a risk) unless other groups have more susceptible members. Considering the population exposed at an "average" level is also important, but, under most circumstances, they will not be the highest risk group. Uncertainties and assumptions made in assembling exposure data should be noted and conveyed to the decisionmakers. It is important to indicate whether the uncertainties and assumptions are expected to provide overestimates or underestimates of exposure and risk. It is usually advisable to obtain information on the range of average to high exposures. Gathering this information allows the decisionmakers to take actions appropriate for the majority of the population and protective of its most at-risk individuals. If sufficient resources to evaluate various aspects of exposure exist, it is recommended that exposure descriptions include the following (Habicht, 1992): Individuals at the central tendency and high-end portions of the exposure distribution Highly exposed population subgroups General population exposure. This information can be used to estimate the range of risks from the average risk (central tendency) to the most at-risk individuals. The 1992 Guidelines for Exposure Assessment provide detailed and specific guidance regarding quantification and description for individuals and populations with higher than average exposure (U. This guidance document was the source of information on the various exposure categories discussed below. As with all information provided in this document, these recommendations are provided for reference purposes; state, local, and tribal governments may elect to use any information they determine is appropriate in establishing fish advisory programs. Central Tendency the central tendency represents the "average" exposure in a population. This value can be derived from either the arithmetic mean or the median exposure level. When exposure is distributed normally as in the figure, the mean and median will coincide at the 50th percentile. When the exposure distribution is skewed, however, the mean and median may differ substantially. Due to the skewed nature of many exposure distributions, the arithmetic mean may not be a good indicator of the midpoint of a distribution. Exposure values designed to address consumers of commercially caught fish are not recommended for use in developing fish advisories. It is not as useful in evaluating noncancer risks because such risks are based on a threshold for effects. People exposed at levels above the "average" level may have exposures exceeding the threshold for health effects. If only "average" levels are considered, the risks to these people will not be considered. In a normally distributed population, approximately 50 percent of the population will have exposures above the "average" level. High-End Portions of the Risk Distribution the high-end estimates of exposure are those between the 90th and 99. They are plausible estimates of individual exposures at the upper end of the exposure distribution. Individuals at the high end of the exposure, dose, and risk distributions may differ, depending on factors such as bioavailability, absorption, intake rates, susceptibility, and other variables (U. Risks may be reported at a distribution of high-end percentiles such as the 90th, 95th, and 98th. Figure 2-2 shows the location of the high-end exposure segment on a normal distribution. High-end exposure estimates include values falling within the actual exposure distribution rather than above it. High-end exposure estimates are very useful in estimating population risks and establishing exposure limits because they provide a plausible worst-case scenario.
The notion of "primitive" sexual promiscuity is as devoid of biological sub stance as that of the "roaming horde diabetes 90 day test buy discount precose 25 mg on line. The development of a bioeconomic apparatus based on manual and verbal technicity presupposes equally efficient social integra tion-a basic cell in harmony with its food requirements and linked to neighboring cells by a network of exchanges in harmony with its reproductive requirements diabetes in cats purchase genuine precose on line. Concerns relating to the acquisition of food preponderate in the primary group (the couple or family unit), and those relating to the acquisition of matrimonial partners in the wider kinship or ethnic group. Forms o S f ymbiosis the complementary technical actiVities of the spouses are, strictly speaking, symbiotic in that they cannot be separated at the technoeconomic level without dehumanizing the society (figures 69 and 70). Manufactured objects or commodities circulate continually among the primitive peoples of today. Depending on what its specific resources may be, a small group will serve as a specialized sup- the Social Organism 155 70. The economic relations o Eskimosfrom the Middle Ages until thefinal annihilation o f f traditional structures. Vital commodities (ivory, skins, wood locally manu actured goods), f (stone lamps, cookingpots, native co pperware) and goods o Asian, Indian, or Euro f pean) f origin (pipes, tobacco, ironware are circulated as a result o exchanges between neighbor inggroups. With Eskimos the balance was until recendy based on the cir culation of stone lamps, wood for making harpoon handles and sleds, and reindeer skins for making winter garments. With Bushmen it was based on skins and bead ornaments made from ostrich egg shells; with Australian aborigines, decorated boomerangs and stone knives. All these objects were the subject ofexchanges whose interruption would in many cases have jeopardized the survival of the elementary group supplying the object in question. Exchanges of foodstuffs, manufactured objects, and raw materials, as well as of services, form part of the essential function ing of the cluster of matrimonial cells which earlier writers used to call the "clan. There are records to prove that flints of exceptional quality were already being 156 Technics and Language circulated at that time, and the existence of regional units was beginning to become quite dearly perceptible in the different styles of objects in common use: It is unlikely therefore that territorial arrangements were very different from those known to us through more recent examples. The idea of a primitive population pattern made up of small hordes roaming over interminable plains without any organized contact between them is contrary to the simplest biological rules. The survival of any species is predicated upon the sym biotic organization of a sufficient number of individuals-large and tighdy knit groups in the case of species with massive food resources, handfuls of individuals confined within a small area in the case of species whose resources are few and f ar between. We have seen that humans could not have survived living in herds or living alone, and we have to acknowledge that the specifically human form of group life, with all its sociological consequences, is still maintained wherever conditions allow. We can say with certainty that the above is true of the past forty thousand years. The fact of our ceasing to be a zoological species and becoming an "ethnic" one made it inevitable. In chapters 3 and 4 we saw how the tech nical development curve turned steeply upward at that moment, and we ascribed this sudden evolution to the loss of the prefrontal bar and the consequent release of a higher form of intelligence capable of using symbols as implements for achieving control over the external environment. Such control is unthinkable without lan guage, but it is also inconceivable without a complex social organization. If we then try to look back further than forty thousand years, what picture can we form of Pithe canthropian or Australanthropian society The existence of continentwide technical stereotypes, coupled with lack of data about life in those societies, inevitably makes speculation abstract. The comparison with family groups of gorillas or chimpan zees-with their relative conjugal stability, their polygamous arrangements, their more or less permanent territories, and their habit of splitting up into intermediate groups-naturally comes to mind. But the social organization of these higher spe different from the general type to which the present-day human belongs. We can imagine their matrimonial unions to have been less long-lived, or the constraints imposed by members of the group upon each other less dear-cut, but it seems that cies, whose young mature even more slowly than ours, could not be fundamentally 1be Social Organism 157 the basic organization of anthropoid society must have been really and completely Anthropian from the outset, firmly anchored in its forms by laws that successive cul tures would paraphrase into legal rules or dogmas but that owe their stability to essentially biological causes. In terms ofgeological time only an instant separates the last aurochs hunter from the Mesopotamian scribe, and the emergence of the new economies is there fore a sudden explosion. That is precisely how the phenomenon was considered for a long time, and indeed some authors even today refer to the "invention" of agri culture. In a similar vein prehistorians ofan earlier generation introduced the notion of at least partial domestication of the reindeer and the horse. The primitive world seems so different from that of the farmer and stockbreeder that it is difficult to see what else but an "invention" could join them together.
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