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Increased cellular uptake of glucose Decreased intracellular a-glycerophosphate in liver and fat cells Enhanced glucose uptake and use except by brain tissue Decreased fatty acid release from adipose tissue Indirect depression of glucose utilization due to excess fatty acids in the blood 489 10th antimicrobial workshop buy minocycline 50mg with amex. Which of the following hormones initiates its biological effects by activation of cell membrane receptors? Which of the following hormones interacts with a cytoplasmic receptor and then localizes in the nucleus and directs protein and nucleotide synthesis? Thyrotropin-releasing hormone Epinephrine Luteinizing hormone Cortisol Insulin 493 antibiotic resistance methods purchase minocycline 50mg on-line. The treatment may result in bone loss because glucocorticoids do which of the following? A 29-year-old woman presents with paroxysmal episodes of headaches, anxiety, and palpitations. The physician suspects an anxiety disorder, but orders laboratory studies to rule out underlying disease. A 36-year-old male computer programmer works for a company that has just been acquired in a corporate take-over. He experiences symptoms of tachycardia, palpitations, and an irregular heart beat, particularly at night. His plasma catecholamine levels are found to be increased, which may result from which of the following? An increase in blood pressure An increase in blood volume An increase in plasma cortisol An increase in blood glucose Changing from the standing to the supine position 496. An 18-year-old man with hemophilia A suffered multiple internal injuries from a motorcycle accident. He is now presenting with dizziness, abdominal pain, dark patches on his elbows and knees, and cravings for chips and french fries. Cortisol administration to a patient with adrenal insufficiency will result in which of the following? Echocardiography indicates that the ejection fraction is within normal limits, but the cardiologist orders blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide and atrial natriuretic peptide to evaluate possible congestive heart Endocrine Physiology 353 failure. Decreased gluconeogenesis Hypoglycemia Insulin resistance Decreased protein synthesis Decreased lipolysis 499. Radiation treatment for a pituitary tumor in an 8-year-old boy results in the complete loss of pituitary function. The second year medical students started a hunger strike to protest the reduction in library hours. After 3 days of fasting, the students will most likely manifest which of the following? Decreased lipolysis Increased urinary excretion of nitrogen Decreased gluconeogenesis Increased glucose utilization by the brain Increased secretion of insulin Endocrine Physiology Answers 461. When the epiphyses have not yet fused to the long bones, growth is stimulated by excess growth hormone leading to gigantism in children. Once the epiphyses have closed, linear growth is no longer possible, and growth hormone produces the pattern of bone and soft tissue abnormalities typical of acromegaly. Hypersecretion of growth hormone is accompanied by hypersecretion of prolactin in up to 40% of patients with acromegaly. All of these peptides are synthesized and released by the hypothalamus, though the main site of ghrelin synthesis and secretion is the stomach. This steroid is released as its sulfate and is metabolized further to estrogen and androgen by the placenta. During fetal life, the adrenal cortex consists of a thin subcapsular rim, which eventually gives rise to the adult cortex, and a thick inner fetal cortex, which constitutes 80% of the gland. Insulin increases the number of transporters available for glucose uptake in many cells, including adipocytes, skeletal, and cardiac muscle, and some smooth muscle. Insulin does not enhance glucose transport into brain cells, intestinal mucosal cells, or renal tubular epithelial cells. Diabetics have increased susceptibility to infections due to decreased efficacy of granulocytes despite a normal number. They cannot use oral hypoglycemic agents because they do not have any functional pancreatic b cells. Plasma cortisol levels rise sharply during sleep, peaking soon after awakening, and sinking to a low level approximately 12 hours later.


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Non-lifethreatening renal anomalies are seen antibiotics for uti side effects buy cheap minocycline 50mg, and disorders of lymphatic vessels are more common the best antibiotics for acne buy 50 mg minocycline with visa. If both parent and child are affected, the risk of recurrence to produce another affected child is 50%. Because the facial findings of Noonan syndrome become harder to identify as one ages, careful evaluation of the parents is necessary before concluding that a sporadic case has occurred. A few families have been reported with multiple affected siblings and unaffected consanguineous parents, suggesting the presence of a rare autosomal recessive form of Noonan syndrome. A detailed history is required to assess prenatal or delivery circumstances such as a teratogen (infection or medication) or perinatal asphyxia that could be the cause of the hypotonia. A family history can be useful in determining whether a condition is autosomal recessive (a similarly affected sibling) or X-linked (similarly affected males related through females). The differential diagnosis once a pregnancy/deliveryrelated problem has been deemed remote includes myopathies, central nervous system disorders and various genetic conditions. Several illustrative conditions in the differential of hypotonia will be discussed. Newborns with PradereWilli syndrome are typically quite hypotonic and feed poorly. Small hands and feet, and almond-shaped eyes, are not useful diagnostic features in newborns. A specific area on the long arm of chromosome 15 is involved in the etiology of PradereWilli syndrome. The second most common cause is inheritance of two copies of chromosome 15 from the mother and none from the father; this is called uniparental disomy. The concept of the biparental inheritance of certain genes being essential for normal development is called imprinting. Other findings such as facial features suggestive of Down syndrome, hepatomegaly and calcific stippling of the patella and epiphyses are also present. The condition is caused by the absence of peroxisomes, single-membrane organelles in the cell that contain many essential enzymes. An accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma due to a deficiency of peroxisomal enzymes is diagnostic. The condition is usually lethal within a few years and has an autosomal recessive inheritance. The disorder is caused by mutations in a number of genes involved in the biogenesis of the peroxisomes. Zellweger syndrome is the most severe of the numerous inborn errors related to peroxisome structure and function. The symptoms caused by mitochondrial myopathies are protean and can involve hypotonia, lactic acidosis, anemia, hearing loss, visual symptoms, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes mellitus and other organ system dysfunctions. The prognosis varies, but a neonatal presentation portends a very guarded outlook. When an abnormality is found, there is unfortunately little in the way of useful treatment. Various vitamin and co-factor supplementations can be tried, but success is uncommon. However, some mutations that cause newborn disease are inherited from the maternal mitochondrial genome. Since there are many mitochondria in each ovum, the risk of recurrence in this situation may be quite high. Some specific disorders can be diagnosed prenatally via chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, but accurate prenatal interpretations of clinical outcome can be difficult. When seen in newborns, it typically causes respiratory distress, feeding difficulties and talipes in addition to hypotonia. Type 225 differs primarily from Type 1 in that the lower extremity muscle weakness is proximal rather than distal. Myotonic dystrophy is one of several disorders, including Huntington disease and fragile X syndrome, in which the mutation involves an increase in the number of specific groupings (triplet repeats) of nucleic acids.

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Average daily maximum temperatures of 35 to 42 C during the boll opening period have been found to be associated with a hi^i incidence of boll rot and aflatoxin contamination antibiotic vinegar minocycline 50mg without a prescription. Other studies have indicated that cottonseed could be stored for several months at 9 to 10$ moisture without increase in aflatoxin content infection elite cme generic 50mg minocycline visa. Cultural and climatic conditions vary widely in the cotton-growing areas and are differentiated by the very hot temperatures and low rainfall in the Par West and Southwest areas where cotton is grown under irrigation as contrasted to the hi^ier rainfall and humidity, but lower temperatures of the Southcentral and Southeastern states. Cottonseed grown in the Par West and, to a lesser extent, in that grown in the Southwest, had hi^ier incidence and levels of contamination than the other two regions in the 1964-1966 crops. Surveys of the cotton crop over several years showed that boll rot was rare in most U. Although pink boll worm damage increases the incidence of boll rot and aflatoxin contamination in the hot and dry regions, the pink boll worm has been present in the crop for many years in other regions where the occurrence of A. In these more humid regions it appears that other mould species are competitive with A. Cottonseed l production in 1975 over 500,000 tons from which about 150,000 tons of derived cottonseed cake were exported. Aflatoxin was detected in 4 of the samples - one from Guatemala (60)ig/kg), one from Nicaragua (30;ig/kg) and two from El Salvador at levels of 30 and 43 >>g/kg respectively. The 4$ incidence is about the same as that in the United States for rainfall-grown cotton. Influence of some field conditions on the occurrence of aflatoxin in cottonseed at harvest. Aflatoxin was detected in 6 of the cottonseed samples whereas 75 of the cottonseed cake samples contained levels up to 46 їїg/kg. Aflatoxin in cottonseed cake fed to dairy cows was considered to be a contributing source of aflatoxin contamination found in milk in Iran. Analyses of imported cottonseed cake have been reported by Germany, Sweden and Denmark. Aflatoxin B^ was detected in one sample of cottonseed at a level between 10 and 50 jug/kg and aflatoxin B was found in one sample of cottonseed cake at a concentration between 50 and 100 їнg/kg. In 1974» analyses of 7 samples of cottonseed meal for aflatoxin B^ gave an average value of 39 pg/kg; hi^iest concentration was 93 Mg/kg. Soybeans are an important food crop especially in Eastern Asia where the domestic production is largely processed for food. In other countries the oil is extracted for food purposes and the soybean cake is mainly used for livestock production. Over the past few years, however, an increasing quantity of the meal has been processed into flour, protein concentrates and protein isolates for edible uses. Soybeans and soybean cake are important commodities in world trade; over 16 million tons of soybeans and 8. Of 852 samples collected at principal markets in 1964 and 1965, two contained aflatoxin at levels of 7 and 10 ug/kg, respectively. Aflatoxin was not detected in 10 samples of tempe but aflatoxin G1 was found in 2 samples of soybean ketchup at a concentration of 345;ig/kg. It should not be confused with desiccated coconut which is prepared from fresh coconuts for food use. Almost half of the world output of copra is found in a single country, the Philippines, which supplies more than 53 percent of copra and 23 percent of world coconut oil exports. It is eaten by low-income population groups in some countries but is principally used as livestock feed. Significant levels aflatoxin have been detected in copra cake which is mostly used as cattle feed. Other countries producing substantial quantities include Argentina in South America, United States in North America, and Turkey in Asia. However, three countries have reported results of surveillance of imported sunflower cake. In some oountries the crude oil is preferred for food use; in others, refined oil is the product of choioe. Ike customary method of refining involves an alkali treatment which removes essentially all aflatoxin. In many countries the refined oils are bleached by absorption of dissolved plant pigments on speoial clays.

The estrogenic effects of this plant are understood to reduce hot flashes via the brain antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy discount 50mg minocycline otc, potentially help to prevent or treat osteoporosis in the bones antibiotics for body acne purchase minocycline 50 mg free shipping, and possibly alleviate dryness and thinning of the vagina (Seidlovб-Wuttke, 2003). Another proposed mechanism of action for black cohosh is through serotonergic pathways. This was suggested after it was discovered that women on anti depressants experienced less hot flashes and night sweats, therefore it is possible that black cohosh works by also inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin (Oktem, 2007). Although it is recognized that a large, long-term study using rigorous methodology is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of treatment and effects, after reviewing much of the data regarding safety and efficacy of black cohosh, it should be reassured to be a safe option for women who wish to take it for relief of menopausal symptoms. Efficacy and safety of isopropanolic black cohosh extract for climacteric symptoms. Ethnobotanical Uses of Oplopanax horridus Suzyanna Mapachi From the Cascades and north along the Pacific coast grows Oplopanax, an important medicinal plant that is still used by various indigenous groups of the region in which it grows. Oplopanax is an unmistakable spiny shrub that can grow up to ten feet tall in the right conditions. The leaves are maple-shaped and large to be able to catch the bits of sunshine that make its way through the canopy of sitka spruce, western hemlock and douglas fir. The most striking feature of this plant to me are the spines that cover the entirety of its stem. Its been used extensively as a physical medicine and as a spiritual medicine, and these two types of medicine often overlap in traditional coastal cultures. The Tlinget, of southern Alaska and coastal British Columbia, used seal fat to infuse the inner bark and this preparation was drunk as an emetic and cathartic. The inner bark was chewed and poulticed onto wounds to relieve pain as an emergency analgesic. The infusion of the bark and root were drunk for general strength, colds, chest pains, arthritis, ulcers, constipation and tuberculosis. The bark was also used mashed with Abies bark, Pinus gum and Lysichitum root and applied warm to boils, ulcers and rheumatism. The most widespread traditional uses has been for the treatment of external and internal infections, from cuts and scrapes to tuberculosis. Various groups used the bark and stems as an amulet, bathed in the infusion for protection, and the ash was used in protective face paint for ceremonial dancers who were vulnerable to evil influences during rituals. Devils club was used in homes as a wash to purify the space after a sickness or death, and placed in the home to protect against bad influences. The Hesquit scraped the spines off the bark and boiled them down with Vaccinium and Lonicera berries to make a paint and basket dye. I believe that the only real primary sources on Oplopanax are the people indigenous to the region it grows, and have a long history of co-existence with this plant. Moore, Michael ­ Medicinal Plants of the Pacific West (Santa Fe: Red Crane Books, 1993) pg. Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy - Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska (Lone Pine Publishing, 1994) pg. Procyanidins, an antioxidant in cacao, is found in higher concentrations in cacao than 2002) cranberries When and blueberries. In response to studies indicating that dark chocolate had a significant antioxidant content, (Miller, 2006) more and more "dark chocolate" products began showing up on shelves. A chocolate bar with a cocoa solid content of 40-100% is now referred to as "dark chocolate". Attempts to test the antioxidant content of cocoa or chocolate and its subsequent products have illuminated many variables (McShea, 2008) which make it difficult to assess: genetic variability, processing, product recipes and bioavailability of the antioxidant constituents. While cacao has remarkable health benefits it is safe to say that a majority of chocolate consumers today do not eat, raw, unfermented, cacao as the Olmec/Mayan/Aztec people did nearly 1000 years ago. The processing of the cacao takes place to remove the bitterness and astringency lent by theobromine, caffeine, l-leucine, procyanidins, and catechin flavonoids. Processing on the simplest level involves, fermentation of the fresh seeds, drying & roasting and finally winnowing. Fermentation involves spontaneous inoculation of the seeds over the course of seven days, primarily from yeasts and later bacteria. Fermentation occurs unevenly within a batch allowing for much variety in the outcome. This may be because of the temperature reached during fermentation 50oC (122oF) or exposure to the by products of fermentation: lactic acid, ethanol and acetic acid. Under-fermented cacao seeds contain more antioxidant than fully fermented seeds; a technique utilized by producers interested in a "raw" product.

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